12. Callable entities in ECMAScript 6
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12. Callable entities in ECMAScript 6

This chapter gives advice on how to properly use entities you can call (via function calls, method calls, etc.) in ES6.

12.1 Overview

In ES5, a single construct, the (traditional) function, played three roles:

In ES6, there is more specialization. The three duties are now handled as follows. As far as function definitions and class definitions are concerned, a definition is either a declaration or an expression.

Especially for callbacks, arrow functions are handy, because they don’t shadow the this of the surrounding scope.

For longer callbacks and stand-alone functions, traditional functions can be OK. Some APIs use this as an implicit parameter. In that case, you have no choice but to use traditional functions.

Note that I distinguish:

Even though their behaviors differ (as explained later), all of these entities are functions. For example:

> typeof (() => {}) // arrow function
> typeof function* () {} // generator function
> typeof class {} // class

12.2 Ways of calling in ES6

Some calls can be made anywhere, others are restricted to specific locations.

12.2.1 Calls that can be made anywhere

Three kinds of calls can be made anywhere in ES6:

12.2.2 Calls via super are restricted to specific locations

Two kinds of calls can be made via the super keyword; their use is restricted to specific locations:

12.2.3 Non-method functions versus methods

The difference between non-method functions and methods is becoming more pronounced in ECMAScript 6. There are now special entities for both and things that only they can do:

12.3 Recommendations for using callable entities

This section gives tips for using callable entities: When it’s best to use which entity; etc.

12.3.1 Prefer arrow functions as callbacks

As callbacks, arrow functions have two advantages over traditional functions: Problem: this as an implicit parameter

Alas, some JavaScript APIs use this as an implicit argument for their callbacks, which prevents you from using arrow functions. For example: The this in line B is an implicit argument of the function in line A.

beforeEach(function () { // (A)
    this.addMatchers({ // (B)
        toBeInRange: function (start, end) {  

This pattern is less explicit and prevents you from using arrow functions. Solution 1: change the API

This is easy to fix, but requires the API to change:

beforeEach(api => {
        toBeInRange(start, end) {

We have turned the API from an implicit parameter this into an explicit parameter api. I like this kind of explicitness. Solution 2: access the value of this in some other way

In some APIs, there are alternate ways to get to the value of this. For example, the following code uses this.

var $button = $('#myButton');
$button.on('click', function () {

But the target of the event can also be accessed via event.target:

var $button = $('#myButton');
$button.on('click', event => {

12.3.2 Prefer function declarations as stand-alone functions

As stand-alone functions (versus callbacks), I prefer function declarations:

function foo(arg1, arg2) {

The benefits are:

There is one caveat: Normally, you don’t need this in stand-alone functions. If you use it, you want to access the this of the surrounding scope (e.g. a method which contains the stand-alone function). Alas, function declarations don’t let you do that – they have their own this, which shadows the this of the surrounding scope. Therefore, you may want to let a linter warn you about this in function declarations.

Another option for stand-alone functions is assigning arrow functions to variables. Problems with this are avoided, because it is lexical.

const foo = (arg1, arg2) => {

12.3.3 Prefer method definitions for methods

Method definitions are the only way to create methods that use super. They are the obvious choice in object literals and classes (where they are the only way to define methods), but what about adding a method to an existing object? For example:

MyClass.prototype.foo = function (arg1, arg2) {

The following is a quick way to do the same thing in ES6 (caveat: Object.assign() doesn’t move methods with super properly).

Object.assign(MyClass.prototype, {
    foo(arg1, arg2) {

For more information and caveats, consult the section on Object.assign().

12.3.4 Methods versus callbacks

Usually, function-valued properties should be created via method definitions. However, occasionally, arrow functions are the better choice. The following two subsections explain what to use when: the former approach is better for objects with methods, the latter approach is better for objects with callbacks. An object whose properties are methods

Create function-valued properties via method definitions if those properties are really methods. That’s the case if the property values are closely related to the object (obj in the following example) and their sibling methods, not to the surrounding scope (surroundingMethod() in the example).

With a method definition, the this of a property value is the receiver of the method call (e.g. obj if the method call is obj.m(···)).

For example, you can use the WHATWG streams API as follows:

const surroundingObject = {
    surroundingMethod() {
        const obj = {
            data: 'abc',
            start(controller) {
                console.log(this.data); // abc (*)
                this.pull(); // (**)
            pull() {
            cancel() {
        const stream = new ReadableStream(obj);

obj is an object whose properties start, pull and cancel are real methods. Accordingly, these methods can use this to access object-local state (line *) and to call each other (line **). An object whose properties are callbacks

Create function-valued properties via arrow functions if the property values are callbacks. Such callbacks tend to be closely related to their surrounding scopes (surroundingMethod() in the following example), not to the objects they are stored in (obj in the example).

The this of an arrow function is the this of the surrounding scope (lexical this). Arrow functions make great callbacks, because that is the behavior you normally want for callbacks (real, non-method, functions). A callback shouldn’t have its own this that shadows the this of the surrounding scope.

If the properties start, pull and cancel are arrow functions then they pick up the this of surroundingMethod() (their surrounding scope):

const surroundingObject = {
    surroundingData: 'xyz',
    surroundingMethod() {
        const obj = {
            start: controller => {
                console.log(this.surroundingData); // xyz (*)

            pull: () => {

            cancel: () => {
        const stream = new ReadableStream(obj);
const stream = new ReadableStream();

If the output in line * surprises you then consider the following code:

const obj = {
    foo: 123,
    bar() {
        const f = () => console.log(this.foo); // 123
        const o = {
            p: () => console.log(this.foo), // 123

Inside method bar(), the behavior of f should make immediate sense. The behavior of o.p is less obvious, but it is the same as f’s. Both arrow functions have the same surrounding lexical scope, bar(). The latter arrow function being surrounded by an object literal does not change that.

12.3.5 Avoid IIFEs in ES6

This section gives tips for avoiding IIFEs in ES6. Replace an IIFE with a block

In ES5, you had to use an IIFE if you wanted to keep a variable local:

(function () {  // open IIFE
    var tmp = ···;
}());  // close IIFE

console.log(tmp); // ReferenceError

In ECMAScript 6, you can simply use a block and a let or const declaration:

{  // open block
    let tmp = ···;
}  // close block

console.log(tmp); // ReferenceError Replace an IIFE with a module

In ECMAScript 5 code that doesn’t use modules via libraries (such as RequireJS, browserify or webpack), the revealing module pattern is popular, and based on an IIFE. Its advantage is that it clearly separates between what is public and what is private:

var my_module = (function () {
    // Module-private variable:
    var countInvocations = 0;

    function myFunc(x) {

    // Exported by module:
    return {
        myFunc: myFunc

This module pattern produces a global variable and is used as follows:


In ECMAScript 6, modules are built in, which is why the barrier to adopting them is low:

// my_module.js

// Module-private variable:
let countInvocations = 0;

export function myFunc(x) {

This module does not produce a global variable and is used as follows:

import { myFunc } from 'my_module.js';

myFunc(33); Immediately-invoked arrow functions

There is one use case where you still need an immediately-invoked function in ES6: Sometimes you only can produce a result via a sequence of statements, not via a single expression. If you want to inline those statements, you have to immediately invoke a function. In ES6, you can save a few characters via immediately-invoked arrow functions:

const SENTENCE = 'How are you?';
const REVERSED_SENTENCE = (() => {
    // Iteration over the string gives us code points
    // (better for reversal than characters)
    const arr = [...SENTENCE];
    return arr.join('');

Note that you must parenthesize as shown (the parens are around the arrow function, not around the complete function call). Details are explained in the chapter on arrow functions.

12.3.6 Use classes as constructors

In ES5, constructor functions were the mainstream way of creating factories for objects (but there were also many other techniques, some arguably more elegant). In ES6, classes are the mainstream way of implementing constructor functions. Several frameworks support them as alternatives to their custom inheritance APIs.

12.4 ES6 callable entities in detail

This section starts with a cheat sheet, before describing each ES6 callable entity in detail.

12.4.1 Cheat sheet: callable entities The behavior and structure of callable entities

Characteristics of the values produced by the entities:

  Func decl/Func expr Arrow Class Method
Function-callable ×
Constructor-callable × ×
Prototype F.p F.p SC F.p
Property prototype × ×

Characteristics of the whole entities:

  Func decl Func expr Arrow Class Method
Hoisted     ×  
Creates window prop. (1)     ×  
Inner name (2) ×   ×

Characteristics of the bodies of the entities:

  Func decl Func expr Arrow Class (3) Method
this lex
new.target lex
super.prop × × lex
super() × × × ×

Legend – table cells:

Legend – footnotes:

What about generator functions and methods? Those work like their non-generator counterparts, with two exceptions: The rules for this
  function call Method call new
Traditional function (strict) undefined receiver instance
Traditional function (sloppy) window receiver instance
Generator function (strict) undefined receiver TypeError
Generator function (sloppy) window receiver TypeError
Method (strict) undefined receiver TypeError
Method (sloppy) window receiver TypeError
Generator method (strict) undefined receiver TypeError
Generator method (sloppy) window receiver TypeError
Arrow function (strict&sloppy) lexical lexical TypeError
Class (implicitly strict) TypeError TypeError SC protocol

Legend – table cells:

12.4.2 Traditional functions

These are the functions that you know from ES5. There are two ways to create them:

Rules for this:

12.4.3 Generator functions

Generator functions are explained in the chapter on generators. Their syntax is similar to traditional functions, but they have an extra asterisk:

The rules for this are as follows. Note that this never refers to the generator object.

12.4.4 Method definitions

Method definitions can appear inside object literals:

const obj = {
    add(x, y) {
        return x + y;
    }, // comma is required
    sub(x, y) {
        return x - y;
    }, // comma is optional

And inside class definitions:

class AddSub {
    add(x, y) {
        return x + y;
    } // no comma
    sub(x, y) {
        return x - y;
    } // no comma

As you can see, you must separate method definitions in an object literal with commas, but there are no separators between them in a class definition. The former is necessary to keep the syntax consistent, especially with regard to getters and setters.

Method definitions are the only place where you can use super to refer to super-properties. Only method definitions that use super produce functions that have the internal property [[HomeObject]], which is required for that feature (details are explained in the chapter on classes).


Inside class definitions, methods whose name is constructor are special, as explained later in this chapter.

12.4.5 Generator method definitions

Generator methods are explained in the chapter on generators. Their syntax is similar to method definitions, but they have an extra asterisk:

const obj = {
    * generatorMethod(···) {
class MyClass {
    * generatorMethod(···) {


12.4.6 Arrow functions

Arrow functions are explained in their own chapter:

const squares = [1,2,3].map(x => x * x);

The following variables are lexical inside an arrow function (picked up from the surrounding scope):


12.4.7 Classes

Classes are explained in their own chapter.

// Base class: no `extends`
class Point {
    constructor(x, y) {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
    toString() {
        return `(${this.x}, ${this.y})`;

// This class is derived from `Point`
class ColorPoint extends Point {
    constructor(x, y, color) {
        super(x, y);
        this.color = color;
    toString() {
        return super.toString() + ' in ' + this.color;

The Method constructor is special, because it “becomes” the class. That is, classes are very similar to constructor functions:

> Point.prototype.constructor === Point


12.5 Dispatched and direct method calls in ES5 and ES6

There are two ways to call methods in JavaScript:

This section explains how these two work and why you will rarely call methods directly in ECMAScript 6. Before we get started, let’s refresh our knowledge of prototype chains.

12.5.1 Background: prototype chains

Remember that each object in JavaScript is actually a chain of one or more objects. The first object inherits properties from the later objects. For example, the prototype chain of an Array ['a', 'b'] looks as follows:

  1. The instance, holding the elements 'a' and 'b'
  2. Array.prototype, the properties provided by the Array constructor
  3. Object.prototype, the properties provided by the Object constructor
  4. null (the end of the chain, so not really a member of it)

You can examine the chain via Object.getPrototypeOf():

> var arr = ['a', 'b'];
> var p = Object.getPrototypeOf;

> p(arr) === Array.prototype
> p(p(arr)) === Object.prototype
> p(p(p(arr)))

Properties in “earlier” objects override properties in “later” objects. For example, Array.prototype provides an Array-specific version of the toString() method, overriding Object.prototype.toString().

> var arr = ['a', 'b'];
> Object.getOwnPropertyNames(Array.prototype)
[ 'toString', 'join', 'pop', ··· ]
> arr.toString()

12.5.2 Dispatched method calls

If you look at the method call arr.toString() you can see that it actually performs two steps:

  1. Dispatch: In the prototype chain of arr, retrieve the value of the first property whose name is toString.
  2. Call: Call the value and set the implicit parameter this to the receiver arr of the method invocation.

You can make the two steps explicit by using the call() method of functions:

> var func = arr.toString; // dispatch
> func.call(arr) // direct call, providing a value for `this`

12.5.3 Direct method calls

There are two ways to make direct method calls in JavaScript:

Both method call and method apply are invoked on functions. They are different from normal function calls in that you specify a value for this. call provides the arguments of the method call via individual parameters, apply provides them via an Array.

With a dispatched method call, the receiver plays two roles: It is used to find the method and it is an implicit parameter. A problem with the first role is that a method must be in the prototype chain of an object if you want to invoke it. With a direct method call, the method can come from anywhere. That allows you to borrow a method from another object. For example, you can borrow Object.prototype.toString and thus apply the original, un-overridden implementation of toString to an Array arr:

> const arr = ['a','b','c'];
> Object.prototype.toString.call(arr)
'[object Array]'

The Array version of toString() produces a different result:

> arr.toString() // dispatched
> Array.prototype.toString.call(arr); // direct

Methods that work with a variety of objects (not just with instances of “their” constructors) are called generic. Speaking JavaScript has a list of all methods that are generic. The list includes most Array methods and all methods of Object.prototype (which have to work with all objects and are thus implicitly generic).

12.5.4 Use cases for direct method calls

This section covers use cases for direct method calls. Each time, I’ll first describe the use case in ES5 and then how it changes with ES6 (where you’ll rarely need direct method calls). ES5: Provide parameters to a method via an Array

Some functions accept multiple values, but only one value per parameter. What if you want to pass the values via an Array?

For example, push() lets you destructively append several values to an Array:

> var arr = ['a', 'b'];
> arr.push('c', 'd')
> arr
[ 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd' ]

But you can’t destructively append a whole Array. You can work around that limitation by using apply():

> var arr = ['a', 'b'];
> Array.prototype.push.apply(arr, ['c', 'd'])
> arr
[ 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd' ]

Similarly, Math.max() and Math.min() only work for single values:

> Math.max(-1, 7, 2)

With apply(), you can use them for Arrays:

> Math.max.apply(null, [-1, 7, 2])
7 ES6: The spread operator (...) mostly replaces apply()

Making a direct method call via apply() only because you want to turn an Array into arguments is clumsy, which is why ECMAScript 6 has the spread operator (...) for this. It provides this functionality even in dispatched method calls.

> Math.max(...[-1, 7, 2])

Another example:

> const arr = ['a', 'b'];
> arr.push(...['c', 'd'])
> arr
[ 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd' ]

As a bonus, spread also works with the new operator:

> new Date(...[2011, 11, 24])
Sat Dec 24 2011 00:00:00 GMT+0100 (CET)

Note that apply() can’t be used with new – the above feat can only be achieved via a complicated work-around in ECMAScript 5. ES5: Convert an Array-like object to an Array

Some objects in JavaScript are Array-like, they are almost Arrays, but don’t have any of the Array methods. Let’s look at two examples.

First, the special variable arguments of functions is Array-like. It has a length and indexed access to elements.

> var args = function () { return arguments }('a', 'b');
> args.length
> args[0]

But arguments isn’t an instance of Array and does not have the method map().

> args instanceof Array
> args.map

Second, the DOM method document.querySelectorAll() returns an instance of NodeList.

> document.querySelectorAll('a[href]') instanceof NodeList
> document.querySelectorAll('a[href]').map // no Array methods!

Thus, for many complex operations, you need to convert Array-like objects to Arrays first. That is achieved via Array.prototype.slice(). This method copies the elements of its receiver into a new Array:

> var arr = ['a', 'b'];
> arr.slice()
[ 'a', 'b' ]
> arr.slice() === arr

If you call slice() directly, you can convert a NodeList to an Array:

var domLinks = document.querySelectorAll('a[href]');
var links = Array.prototype.slice.call(domLinks);
links.map(function (link) {
    return link.href;

And you can convert arguments to an Array:

function format(pattern) {
    // params start at arguments[1], skipping `pattern`
    var params = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1);
    return params;
console.log(format('a', 'b', 'c')); // ['b', 'c'] ES6: Array-like objects are less burdensome

On one hand, ECMAScript 6 has Array.from(), a simpler way of converting Array-like objects to Arrays:

const domLinks = document.querySelectorAll('a[href]');
const links = Array.from(domLinks);
links.map(link => link.href);

On the other hand, you won’t need the Array-like arguments, because ECMAScript 6 has rest parameters (declared via a triple dot):

function format(pattern, ...params) {
    return params;
console.log(format('a', 'b', 'c')); // ['b', 'c'] ES5: Using hasOwnProperty() safely

obj.hasOwnProperty('prop') tells you whether obj has the own (non-inherited) property prop.

> var obj = { prop: 123 };

> obj.hasOwnProperty('prop')

> 'toString' in obj // inherited
> obj.hasOwnProperty('toString') // own

However, calling hasOwnProperty via dispatch can cease to work properly if Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty is overridden.

> var obj1 = { hasOwnProperty: 123 };
> obj1.hasOwnProperty('toString')
TypeError: Property 'hasOwnProperty' is not a function

hasOwnProperty may also be unavailable via dispatch if Object.prototype is not in the prototype chain of an object.

> var obj2 = Object.create(null);
> obj2.hasOwnProperty('toString')
TypeError: Object has no method 'hasOwnProperty'

In both cases, the solution is to make a direct call to hasOwnProperty:

> var obj1 = { hasOwnProperty: 123 };
> Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(obj1, 'hasOwnProperty')

> var obj2 = Object.create(null);
> Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(obj2, 'toString')
false ES6: Less need for hasOwnProperty()

hasOwnProperty() is mostly used to implement Maps via objects. Thankfully, ECMAScript 6 has a built-in Map data structure, which means that you’ll need hasOwnProperty() less.

12.5.5 Abbreviations for Object.prototype and Array.prototype

You can access the methods of Object.prototype via an empty object literal (whose prototype is Object.prototype). For example, the following two direct method calls are equivalent:

Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(obj, 'propKey')
{}.hasOwnProperty.call(obj, 'propKey')

The same trick works for Array.prototype:


This pattern has become quite popular. It does not reflect the intention of the author as clearly as the longer version, but it’s much less verbose. Speed-wise, there isn’t much of a difference between the two versions.

12.6 The name property of functions

The name property of a function contains the function’s name:

> function foo() {}
> foo.name

This property is useful for debugging (its value shows up in stack traces) and some metaprogramming tasks (picking a function by name etc.).

Prior to ECMAScript 6, this property was already supported by most engines. With ES6, it becomes part of the language standard and is frequently filled in automatically.

12.6.1 Constructs that provide names for functions

The following sections describe how name is set up automatically for various programming constructs. Variable declarations and assignments

Functions pick up names if they are created via variable declarations:

let func1 = function () {};
console.log(func1.name); // func1

const func2 = function () {};
console.log(func2.name); // func2

var func3 = function () {};
console.log(func3.name); // func3

But even with a normal assignment, name is set up properly:

let func4;
func4 = function () {};
console.log(func4.name); // func4

var func5;
func5 = function () {};
console.log(func5.name); // func5

With regard to names, arrow functions are like anonymous function expressions:

const func = () => {};
console.log(func.name); // func

From now on, whenever you see an anonymous function expression, you can assume that an arrow function works the same way. Default values

If a function is a default value, it gets its name from its variable or parameter:

let [func1 = function () {}] = [];
console.log(func1.name); // func1

let { f2: func2 = function () {} } = {};
console.log(func2.name); // func2

function g(func3 = function () {}) {
    return func3.name;
console.log(g()); // func3 Named function definitions

Function declarations and function expression are function definitions. This scenario has been supported for a long time: a function definition with a name passes it on to the name property.

For example, a function declaration:

function foo() {}
console.log(foo.name); // foo

The name of a named function expression also sets up the name property.

const bar = function baz() {};
console.log(bar.name); // baz

Because it comes first, the function expression’s name baz takes precedence over other names (e.g. the name bar provided via the variable declaration):

However, as in ES5, the name of a function expression is only a variable inside the function expression:

const bar = function baz() {
    console.log(baz.name); // baz
console.log(baz); // ReferenceError Methods in object literals

If a function is the value of a property, it gets its name from that property. It doesn’t matter if that happens via a method definition (line A), a traditional property definition (line B), a property definition with a computed property key (line C) or a property value shorthand (line D).

function func() {}
let obj = {
    m1() {}, // (A)
    m2: function () {}, // (B)
    ['m' + '3']: function () {}, // (C)
    func, // (D)
console.log(obj.m1.name); // m1
console.log(obj.m2.name); // m2
console.log(obj.m3.name); // m3
console.log(obj.func.name); // func

The names of getters are prefixed with 'get', the names of setters are prefixed with 'set':

let obj = {
    get foo() {},
    set bar(value) {},
let getter = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(obj, 'foo').get;
console.log(getter.name); // 'get foo'

let setter = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(obj, 'bar').set;
console.log(setter.name); // 'set bar' Methods in class definitions

The naming of methods in class definitions is similar to object literals:

class C {
    m1() {}
    ['m' + '2']() {} // computed property key

    static classMethod() {}
console.log(C.prototype.m1.name); // m1
console.log(new C().m1.name); // m1

console.log(C.prototype.m2.name); // m2

console.log(C.classMethod.name); // classMethod

Getters and setters again have the name prefixes 'get' and 'set', respectively:

class C {
    get foo() {}
    set bar(value) {}
let getter = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(C.prototype, 'foo').get;
console.log(getter.name); // 'get foo'

let setter = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(C.prototype, 'bar').set;
console.log(setter.name); // 'set bar' Methods whose keys are symbols

In ES6, the key of a method can be a symbol. The name property of such a method is still a string:

const key1 = Symbol('description');
const key2 = Symbol();

let obj = {
    [key1]() {},
    [key2]() {},
console.log(obj[key1].name); // '[description]'
console.log(obj[key2].name); // '' Class definitions

Remember that class definitions create functions. Those functions also have their property name set up correctly:

class Foo {}
console.log(Foo.name); // Foo

const Bar = class {};
console.log(Bar.name); // Bar Default exports

All of the following statements set name to 'default':

export default function () {}
export default (function () {});

export default class {}
export default (class {});

export default () => {}; Other programming constructs

12.6.2 Caveats Caveat: the name of a function is always assigned at creation

Function names are always assigned during creation and never changed later on. That is, JavaScript engines detect the previously mentioned patterns and create functions that start their lives with the correct names. The following code demonstrates that the name of the function created by functionFactory() is assigned in line A and not changed by the declaration in line B.

function functionFactory() {
    return function () {}; // (A)
const foo = functionFactory(); // (B)
console.log(foo.name.length); // 0 (anonymous)

One could, in theory, check for each assignment whether the right-hand side evaluates to a function and whether that function doesn’t have a name, yet. But that would incur a significant performance penalty. Caveat: minification

Function names are subject to minification, which means that they will usually change in minified code. Depending on what you want to do, you may have to manage function names via strings (which are not minified) or you may have to tell your minifier what names not to minify.

12.6.3 Changing the names of functions

These are the attributes of property name:

> let func = function () {}
> Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(func, 'name')
{ value: 'func',
  writable: false,
  enumerable: false,
  configurable: true }

The property not being writable means that you can’t change its value via assignment:

> func.name = 'foo';
> func.name

The property is, however, configurable, which means that you can change it by re-defining it:

> Object.defineProperty(func, 'name', {value: 'foo', configurable: true});
> func.name

If the property name already exists then you can omit the descriptor property configurable, because missing descriptor properties mean that the corresponding attributes are not changed.

If the property name does not exist yet then the descriptor property configurable ensures that name remains configurable (the default attribute values are all false or undefined).

12.6.4 The function property name in the spec

12.7 FAQ: callable entities

12.7.1 How do I determine whether a function was invoked via new?

ES6 has a new protocol for subclassing, which is explained in the chapter on classes. Part of that protocol is the meta-property new.target, which refers to the first element in a chain of constructor calls (similar to this in a chain for supermethod calls). It is undefined if there is no constructor call. We can use that to enforce that a function must be invoked via new or that it must not be invoked via it. This is an example for the latter:

function realFunction() {
    if (new.target !== undefined) {
        throw new Error('Can’t be invoked via `new`');

In ES5, this was usually checked like this:

function realFunction() {
    "use strict";
    if (this !== undefined) {
        throw new Error('Can’t be invoked via `new`');
Next: 13. Arrow functions